How to Configure a New Ubuntu Server with Ansible

Updated on December 1, 2022
How to Configure a New Ubuntu Server with Ansible header image


This guide will show you how to automate the initial Ubuntu server configuration (18.04 through 22.10) using Ansible. Ansible is a software tool that automates the configuration of one or more remote nodes from a local control node. The local node can be another Linux system, a Mac, or a Windows PC. If you are using a Windows PC, you can install Linux using the Windows Subsystem for Linux. This guide will focus on using a Mac as the control node to set up a new Vultr Ubuntu server.

The Ubuntu Ansible setup playbook is listed at the end of this guide.

This guide describes how to install and use it. The playbook, and this guide, have been updated and tested to work with Ubuntu 18.04, 20.04, 22.04, and 22.10. It also now works with the latest stable Ansible community version. Starting with Ubuntu 22.10, sshd now uses socket-based activation to start when an incoming connection request is received. The playbook is updated to automatically create the correct SSH configuration for the running Ubuntu version.

It takes a little work to set up and start using Ansible, but once it is set up and you become familiar with it, using Ansible will save a lot of time and effort. For example, you may want to experiment with different applications. Using the Ansible setup playbook described in this guide, you can quickly reinstall your Ubuntu instance and then run the playbook to configure your base server. I hope this playbook will be a good example for creating future playbooks for installing web servers, database servers, or even an email server.

We will use a single Ansible playbook that will do the following:

  • Upgrade installed apt packages.
  • Install a base set of useful software packages.
  • Update the systemd-resolve DNS to work with the Unbound DNS resolver.
  • Set a fully qualified domain name (FQDN).
  • Set the timezone.
  • Set sudo password timeout (can change the default 15-minute timeout).
  • Create a regular user with sudo privileges.
  • Install SSH Keys for the new regular user.
  • Ensure the authorized key for the root user is installed (or updated to a new key).
  • Update/Change the root user password.
  • Disable password authentication for root.
  • Disable tunneled clear-text passwords.
  • Create a 2-line prompt for the root and the new regular user.
  • Set the SSH port number, which allows for setting a non-standard port number, in sshd_config (Ubuntu versions less than 22.10) or in the SSH listen socket configuration (Ubuntu versions equal or greater than 22.10).
  • Configure a firewall using UFW.
  • Configure the UFW logging level.
  • Configure brute force mitigation using fail2ban.
  • Optionally configure static IP networking.
  • Reboot and restart services as needed.

A local DNS resolver is created by installing the unbound package using the default installed configuration. The systemd-resolved configuration is updated to work with unbound. They provide a local DNS recursive resolver, and the results are cached. This is really important if you want to run your own email server that includes DNS blacklist (DNSBL) lookups. Some DNSBL services will not work with a public DNS resolver because they limit the number of queries from a server IP.

If you have configured additional IPs in the Vultr control panel, you can use this playbook to install a new or updated netplan networking file (/etc/netplan/50-cloud-init.yaml). By default, the Configure static networking playbook task is disabled.

After you create your Ubuntu 21.10 (or later) instance, Cloud-init will install any available updates. If you try to execute the setup playbook right after creating your instance, there may be a conflict between Cloud-init and the apt upgrade task. You may see a task failure like:

TASK [Upgrade installed apt packages]   **********************************************************************************************
FAILED - RETRYING: Upgrade installed apt packages (15 retries left).
FAILED - RETRYING: Upgrade installed apt packages (14 retries left).
FAILED - RETRYING: Upgrade installed apt packages (13 retries left).
ok: []

This is completely normal. The setup playbook will retry up to 15 times to run the apt upgrade task (while it is waiting for the lockfile to be released). If you wait a few minutes after creating the instance, you will probably not see any apt upgrade task failures when running the setup playbook.


  • A Vultr server with a freshly installed Ubuntu (18.04, 20.04, 22.04, or 22.10) instance.
  • A local Mac, Windows (with Linux installed via the WSL), or a Linux system (this guide will focus on using a Mac, but the procedures are similar for any Linux control node).
  • If using a Mac, Homebrew should be installed.
  • A previously generated SSH Key for the Vultr host; the SSH public key should already be installed for the root user.
  • The current stable Ansible version (this guide has been thoroughly tested with the Ansible core version 2.13.6 on a Mac, installed via Homebrew).

1. Install Ansible on the Local System

For this guide, we are using the latest (stable) community version of Ansible.

If you are using a Mac with Homebrew installed:

$ brew install ansible

This will install Ansible along with all the required dependencies, including python version 3.10.x. You can quickly test your installation by doing:

$ ansible --version
ansible [core 2.13.6]
  config file = /Users/george/.ansible.cfg
  configured module search path = ['/Users/george/.ansible/plugins/modules', '/usr/share/ansible/plugins/modules']
  ansible python module location = /usr/local/Cellar/ansible/6.6.0/libexec/lib/python3.10/site-packages/ansible
  ansible collection location = /Users/george/.ansible/collections:/usr/share/ansible/collections
  executable location = /usr/local/bin/ansible
  python version = 3.10.8 (main, Oct 13 2022, 10:18:28) [Clang 13.0.0 (clang-1300.0.29.30)]
  jinja version = 3.1.2
  libyaml = True

Create a Simple Ansible Configuration

Create the .ansible.cfg configuration file in the local user home directory. This will tell Ansible how to locate the host's inventory file.

If you are using a Mac, add the following content:

inventory  = /Users/user/ansible/hosts.yml
interpreter_python = auto

Be sure to replace user with your actual user name.

Create the folder to store the hosts.yml hosts inventory file:

$ mkdir ~/ansible
$ cd ~/ansible

Of course, you can put it anywhere you want to and give it any name. Just make sure that your .ansible.cfg file points to the correct location. I like storing all my ansible files in a Dropbox folder where I can also run my setup playbook from other Mac machines.

This is example content to add to ~/ansible/hosts.yml:

          user: george
          user_passwd: "{{ ap1_user_passwd }}"
          ansible_sudo_passwd: "{{ ap1_sudo_passwd }}"
          root_passwd: "{{ ap1_root_passwd }}"
          ssh_port: "22"
          ssh_pub_key: "{{ lookup('file', '~/.ssh/')  }}"
          cfg_static_network: false

Be sure to update the host and user names.

The user is the regular user to be created. The user_passwd, ansible_sudo_passwd, and root_passwd are the user's, ansible sudo, and root passwords that are stored in an Ansible vault (described below). ssh_port defines the desired to-be-configured SSH port number. ssh_pub_key points to the SSH public key for the Vultr host.

The cfg_static_network is a boolean variable that is set to true if you are configuring static networking in /etc/netplan. Unless you have specifically created a static networking configuration, you should leave this set to false. Configuring a static network is beyond the scope of this guide.

Using the Ansible Vault

Create the directory for the Ansible password vault and setup playbook:

$ mkdir -p ~/ansible/ubuntu
$ cd ~/ansible/ubuntu

Create the Ansible password vault:

$ ansible-vault create passwd.yml
New Vault password: 
Confirm New Vault password:

This will start up your default system editor. Add the following content:

host_user_passwd: ELqZ9L70SSOTjnE0Jq
host_sudo_passwd: "{{ host_user_passwd }}"
host_root_passwd: tgM2Q5h8WCeibIdJtd

Replace host with your actual hostname. Generate your own secure passwords. Save and exit your editor. This creates an encrypted file that only Ansible can read. You can add other host passwords to the same file.

pwgen is a very handy tool that you can use to generate secure passwords. Install it on a Mac via Homebrew: brew install pwgen. Use it as follows:

$ pwgen -s 18 2
ELqZ9L70SSOTjnE0Jq tgM2Q5h8WCeibIdJtd

You can view the contents of the ansible-vault file with:

$ ansible-vault view passwd.yml
Vault password:

You can edit the file with:

$ ansible-vault edit passwd.yml                
Vault password: 

2. Create an SSH Config File for the Vultr Host

Next, we need to define the Vultr hostname and SSH port number that Ansible will use to connect to the remote host.

The SSH configuration for the server host is stored in ~/.ssh/config. An example configuration looks like this (on a Mac):

Host *
  AddKeysToAgent yes
  UseKeychain yes
  IdentitiesOnly yes
  AddressFamily inet

Host ap1
  Port 22
  User george
  IdentityFile ~/.ssh/ap1_ed25519

Using this SSH config file, you can change the default SSH port number (if changed by the Ansible playbook). (The playbook is always executed the first time with SSH port 22.) If the playbook changes the SSH port number, then the SSH port number in the SSH config file needs to be changed after the playbook runs.

With this example SSH configuration file, you can use a shorthand hostname to log into the server.

For the user login:

$ ssh ap1

For the root login:

$ ssh root@ap1

UserKeychain is specific to macOS. It stores the SSH public key in the macOS key chain. is the Vultr server FQDN (Fully Qualified Domain Name) that needs to be defined in your DNS or in the /etc/hosts file on your local system. Port is optional but required if you define a non-standard SSH port.

Important: Install your SSH Key for the root user if you have not done so already:

$ ssh-copy-id -i ~/.ssh/host_ed25519 root@host

After installing your Ubuntu instance, verify that you can log in without using a password:

$ ssh root@ap1
The authenticity of host ' (' can't be established.
ECDSA key fingerprint is SHA256:Z94moYXpNh8iVr23Gk791U0TRsw6WS7A4mHNFI1YdD8.
Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no/[fingerprint])? yes
Warning: Permanently added ',' (ECDSA) to the list of known hosts.
Welcome to Ubuntu 22.04.1 LTS (GNU/Linux 5.15.0-53-generic x86_64)
 o o o


The first time you login, you will be prompted with Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no/[fingerprint])?. Answer yes.

Note: If you reinstall your Vultr instance, be sure to delete your Vultr hostname from ~/.ssh/known_hosts on your local control node. Otherwise, you will see an SSH error when you try to log into your reinstalled host. The hostname is added to this file during the first login attempt:

$ cat ~/.ssh/known_hosts
 o o o, ecdsa-sha2-nistp256 AAAAE2VjZHNhLXNoYTItbmlzdHAyNTYAAAAIbmlzdHAyNTYAAABBBOM3gafKFgZLiHgEoQ02eCWoJkYYTSSGJJQNtQ3LxALUG+nW7JBw/ZONWSZXW07fazakXMnpH6S+LaRundHvd4g=

If you don't delete the hostname from this file after reinstalling your instance, you will see an error like:

$ ssh root@ap1
o o o

If this happens, delete the line entered for your hostname in the known_hosts file and rerun the ssh command.

3. Test Your SSH/Ansible Configuration

Before trying to run the setup Ansible playbook, we need to verify that Ansible is working correctly, you can access your Ansible vault, and can connect to your Vultr host. First, verify that Ansible is installed correctly on a Mac:

$ ansible --version
ansible [core 2.13.6] 
  config file = /Users/user/.ansible.cfg
  o o o

This is the latest version of Ansible on a Mac/Homebrew when this guide was written.

Run this example command, updating your actual hostname, to test your Ansible configuration (also, your SSH configuration):

$ ansible -m ping --ask-vault-pass --extra-vars '@passwd.yml' -u root
Vault password: | SUCCESS => {
    "ansible_facts": {
        "discovered_interpreter_python": "/usr/bin/python3"
    "changed": false,
    "ping": "pong"

If you see the above output, then everything is working fine. If not, go back and double-check all your SSH and Ansible configuration settings. Start by verifying that you can execute:

$ ssh root@host

Login in without a password (you have installed your SSH key for root).

4. Running the Ansible Ubuntu Server Configuration Playbook

You are ready to run the playbook; when you execute the playbook, you will be prompted for your vault password. The playbook will execute a number of tasks with a PLAY RECAP at the end. You can rerun the playbook multiple times; for example, you may want to rerun the playbook to change something like the SSH port number. It will only execute tasks when needed. Be sure to update variables at the beginning of the playbook, such as your timezone and your local client IP address, before running the playbook. Setting your local client IP address prevents you from being accidentally locked out by fail2ban.

You can easily determine your client IP address by logging into your host and executing the who command:

root@host:~# who
root     pts/1        2021-10-11 20:24 (

Your client IP address,, will be listed in the output.

We are finally ready to run the Ansible playbook, which I listed below. Be sure that you are in the ~/ansible/ubuntu directory. This is the command to run:

$ ansible-playbook --ask-vault-pass --extra-vars '@passwd.yml' setup-pb.yml -l -u root
Vault password:

Enter your vault password when prompted. Depending on the speed of your Mac, it might take a few seconds to start up. If it completes successfully, you will see PLAY RECAP like:

PLAY RECAP *************************************************************************************************************************          : ok=40   changed=27   unreachable=0    failed=0    skipped=8    rescued=0    ignored=0

The most important thing to note is that there should be no failed tasks.

Next, I will describe some basic tests that you can run to verify your server setup.

5. Ubuntu Server Verification

After you have successfully executed the Ansible setup playbook, here are some basic tests that you can execute to verify your server setup. I will show some real-life examples with the server host that I used to test the setup playbook (my local hostname is ap1, and my user name is george). I executed these tests on Ubuntu 22.04.1.

Verify Your User Login

If you changed the SSH port number, update the port number in ~/.ssh/config and verify that you can log into your new user account using your host's public SSH key:

$ ssh ap1
Welcome to Ubuntu 22.04.1 LTS (GNU/Linux 5.15.0-53-generic x86_64)

 * Documentation:
 * Management:
 * Support:

  System information as of Sat Nov 26 05:39:49 PM UTC 2022

  System load:             0.02392578125
  Usage of /:              12.5% of 93.67GB
  Memory usage:            10%
  Swap usage:              0%
  Processes:               139
  Users logged in:         0
  IPv4 address for enp1s0:
  IPv6 address for enp1s0: 2001:19f0:5c01:63f:5400:4ff:fe31:4708

0 updates can be applied immediately.

The programs included with the Ubuntu system are free software;
the exact distribution terms for each program are described in the
individual files in /usr/share/doc/*/copyright.

Ubuntu comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by
applicable law.

To run a command as administrator (user "root"), use "sudo <command>".
See "man sudo_root" for details.


Note the two-line prompt. The first line shows user@host and the current directory.

Now, note how the l, la, and ll LS aliases work:

$ l

$ la
.bash_logout  .bashrc  .cache  .profile  .ssh  tmpfile

$ ll
total 28
drwxr-x--- 4 george george 4096 Nov 26 17:46 ./
drwxr-xr-x 4 root   root   4096 Nov 26 17:36 ../
-rw-r--r-- 1 george george  220 Jan  6  2022 .bash_logout
-rw-r--r-- 1 george george 3879 Nov 26 17:37 .bashrc
drwx------ 2 george george 4096 Nov 26 17:39 .cache/
-rw-r--r-- 1 george george  807 Jan  6  2022 .profile
drwx------ 2 george george 4096 Nov 26 17:36 .ssh/
-rw-rw-r-- 1 george george    0 Nov 26 17:46 tmpfile

Verify Your User Password

Even though you use an SSH public key to log in to your user account, you still need to use your user password with the sudo command. For example, use the sudo command to change to the root account (enter your user password when prompted):

$ sudo -i
[sudo] password for george: 
# exit

Verify the Root Password

While in your user account, you can also use su - to change to the root account. One difference is that you will have to enter your root password:

$ su -
# exit

Verify Your Hostname

While we are in the root account, let's verify our hostname and some other features that the playbook set up for us:

# hostname

# hostname -f

# date
Sat Nov 26 05:50:30 PM UTC 2022

Here we verified both the short and FQDN hostnames. With the date command, verify that the timezone is set correctly.

Verify the Unbound Local DNS Caching Resolver

An in-depth discussion of Unbound is beyond the scope of this guide. However, I can provide a few quick tests to verify that the default Unbound local DNS caching resolver configuration is working. We will use the dig command.

To verify that the resolver is working, do, for example:

# dig +noall +answer +stats              3600    IN      A
;; Query time: 92 msec
;; WHEN: Sat Nov 26 17:51:41 UTC 2022
;; MSG SIZE  rcvd: 58

Note that the server address is Also, note the TTL (Time To Live). For this example, the TTL is 3600 seconds. Also, note the Query time, 92 msec. Now execute the same command again:

# dig +noall +answer +stats              3589    IN      A
;; Query time: 0 msec
;; WHEN: Sat Nov 26 17:51:52 UTC 2022
;; MSG SIZE  rcvd: 58

The Query time should be at or near 0 msec because the second query result came from our local cache. The cached result will remain active for the time-to-live interval, which, as you can see, is counting down.

Some (email) blocklist servers will rate-limit your access to their pre-defined DNS resolvers. This could cause issues when using a public DNS resolver. For example, when executing the following dig command, you should see "permanent testpoint" when using a local DNS resolver.

# dig txt +short
"permanent testpoint"

If you were using a public DNS resolver, you might see a failure like (after you first create your Vultr instance, but have not executed the setup playbook):

root@ap1:~# dig txt +short
" -> Query Refused. See for more information [Your DNS IP:]"

You can have a look at that URL to read more about this topic.

Verify fail2ban and UFW SSH Port Protection

This set of tests will verify that fail2ban and UFW are integrated together to protect your SSH port. If you are using the default port 22, it will not take long for attackers to attempt to log in to your server. Their login attempt will fail, and fail2ban will take note of the failure. If there are multiple failed attempts in a short period of time (as noted in your fail2ban configuration), fail2ban will ban the IP for the time that you configured in your fail2ban configuration. Fail2ban will notify UFW to block the IP for the duration of the ban.

To see the current fail2ban status, you can execute fail2ban-client status sshd (or f2bst sshd to save some typing):

# f2bst sshd
Status for the jail: sshd
|- Filter
|  |- Currently failed:     2
|  |- Total failed: 8
|  `- File list:    /var/log/auth.log
`- Actions
   |- Currently banned:     2
   |- Total banned: 2
   `- Banned IP list:       2600:380:677d:c75c:5db9:85f6:d434:2229

This output shows that there are currently two failed login attempts. There have been a total of 8 failures. Of those failed attempts, two IP addresses met the criteria to be banned. There are two IPs that are currently banned. You can observe these IP failures and bans at /var/log/fail2ban.log:

2022-11-26 18:05:03,837 fail2ban.filter         [19729]: INFO    [sshd] Found 2600:380:677d:c75c:5db9:85f6:d434:2229 - 2022-11-26 18:05:03  
2022-11-26 18:05:12,109 fail2ban.filter         [19729]: INFO    [sshd] Found 2600:380:677d:c75c:5db9:85f6:d434:2229 - 2022-11-26 18:05:12  
2022-11-26 18:05:18,559 fail2ban.filter         [19729]: INFO    [sshd] Found 2600:380:677d:c75c:5db9:85f6:d434:2229 - 2022-11-26 18:05:18  
2022-11-26 18:05:18,785 fail2ban.actions        [19729]: NOTICE  [sshd] Ban 2600:380:677d:c75c:5db9:85f6:d434:2229

2022-11-26 18:05:38,985 fail2ban.filter         [19729]: INFO    [sshd] Found - 2022-11-26 18:05:38 
2022-11-26 18:05:43,335 fail2ban.filter         [19729]: INFO    [sshd] Found - 2022-11-26 18:05:43 
2022-11-26 18:05:46,935 fail2ban.filter         [19729]: INFO    [sshd] Found - 2022-11-26 18:05:46 
2022-11-26 18:05:47,042 fail2ban.actions        [19729]: NOTICE  [sshd] Ban

You can also execute iptables -nL f2b-sshd and see any currently banned IPs:

# iptables -nL f2b-sshd
Chain f2b-sshd (1 references)
target     prot opt source               destination
REJECT     all  --            reject-with icmp-port-unreachable
RETURN     all  --  

Note: Execute ip6tables -nL f2b-sshd to view any banned IPv6 addresses. The f2b-sshd Chain may not be present if no IPs have been banned, and you will see an error message.

I produced the above output by running a test from my phone, logging into my server with invalid credentials, and verifying that I could no longer connect after my IP address was banned. It first tried an IPv6 address and then the IPv4 address. (I turned off my Wi-Fi to ensure that the IP address was different from my my_client_ip. If my phone were using my_client_ip, the connection would never fail.):

2022-11-26 18:06:31,779 fail2ban.filter         [19729]: INFO    [sshd] Ignore by ip

6. Ubuntu Ansible Set-Up Playbook Listing

This is the setup-pb.yml playbook:

# Initial server setup
- hosts: all
  become: yes
    tmzone: UTC
    sudo_timeout: 60

    # Set ufw logging: on | off | low | medium | high | full
    ufw_log: off

    # SSH socket config used for 22.10 and later.
    # Disable any existing listen steam and enable the new stream.
    ssh_socket_cfg: |
      ListenStream={{ ssh_port }}

    resolved_cfg: |

    f2b_jail_local: |
      ignoreip = ::1 {{ my_client_ip }}
      findtime = 15m
      bantime = 2h
      maxretry = 5

      enabled = true
      maxretry = 3
      port = {{ ssh_port }}

    - name: Get datestamp from the system
      shell: date +"%Y%m%d"
      register: dstamp

    - name: Set current date stamp variable
        cur_date: "{{ dstamp.stdout }}"

    # Update and install the base software
    - name: Update apt package cache
        update_cache: yes
        cache_valid_time: 3600

    - name: Upgrade installed apt packages 
        upgrade: dist
      register: upgrade
      retries: 15
      delay: 5
      until: upgrade is success

    - name: Ensure that a base set of software packages are installed
          - apt-transport-https
          - build-essential
          - fail2ban
          - pwgen
          - unbound
          - unzip
        state: latest

    - name: Create a local systemd-resolved configuration directory.
        path: /etc/systemd/resolved.conf.d
        state: directory
        owner: root
        group: root
        mode: 0755

    - name: Create a local systemd-resolved configuration that works with unbound.
        dest: /etc/systemd/resolved.conf.d/local.conf
        content: "{{ resolved_cfg }}"
        owner: root
        group: root
        mode: 0644

    - name: Update the systemd-resolved /etc/resolv.conf symbolic link.
        src: /run/systemd/resolve/resolv.conf
        dest: /etc/resolv.conf
        state: link
        owner: root
        group: root

    - name: Restart systemd-resolved
        name: systemd-resolved
        state: restarted

    - name: Check if a reboot is needed for Debian-based systems
        path: /var/run/reboot-required
      register: reboot_required

    # Host Setup
    - name: Set static hostname
        name: "{{ inventory_hostname_short }}"

    - name: Add FQDN to /etc/hosts
        dest: /etc/hosts
        regexp: '^127\.0\.1\.1'
        line: ' {{ inventory_hostname }} {{ inventory_hostname_short }}'
        state: present

    - name: Check if cloud init is installed.
      stat: path="/etc/cloud/templates/hosts.debian.tmpl"
      register: cloud_installed

    - name: Add FQDN to /etc/cloud/templates/hosts.debian.tmpl
        dest: /etc/cloud/templates/hosts.debian.tmpl
        regexp: '^127\.0\.1\.1'
        line: " {{ inventory_hostname }} {{ inventory_hostname_short }}"
        state: present
      when: cloud_installed.stat.exists

    - name: set timezone
        name: "{{ tmzone }}"

    # Set sudo password timeout (default is 15 minutes)
    - name: Set sudo password timeout.
        path: /etc/sudoers
        state: present
        regexp: '^Defaults\tenv_reset'
        line: 'Defaults env_reset, timestamp_timeout={{ sudo_timeout }}'
        validate: '/usr/sbin/visudo -cf %s'

    - name: Create/update regular user with sudo privileges
        name: "{{ user }}"
        password: "{{ user_passwd | password_hash('sha512') }}"
        state: present
        groups: sudo
        append: true
        shell: /bin/bash

    - name: Ensure ansible_sudo_passwd matches the [new] user password
        ansible_sudo_passwd: "{{ user_passwd }}"

    - name: Ensure authorized keys for remote user is installed
        user: "{{ user }}"
        state: present
        key: "{{ ssh_pub_key }}"

    - name: Ensure authorized key for root user is installed
        user: root
        state: present
        key: "{{ ssh_pub_key }}"

    - name: Update root user password.
        name: root
        password: "{{ root_passwd | password_hash('sha512') }}"

    - name: Disable password authentication for root
        path: /etc/ssh/sshd_config
        state: present
        regexp: '^#?PermitRootLogin'
        line: 'PermitRootLogin prohibit-password'

    - name: Disable tunneled clear-text passwords
        path: /etc/ssh/sshd_config
        state: present
        regexp: '^PasswordAuthentication yes'
        line: 'PasswordAuthentication no'

    - name: Set user PS1 to a two-line prompt
        dest: "/home/{{ user }}/.bashrc"
        insertafter: EOF
        line: "PS1='${debian_chroot:+($debian_chroot)}\\[\\033[01;32m\\]\\u@\\h\\[\\033[00m\\]:\\[\\033[01;34m\\]\\w\\[\\033[00m\\]\\n\\$ '"
        state: present

    - name: Set root PS1 to a two-line prompt
        path: '/root/.bashrc'
        state: present
        insertafter: EOF
        line: PS1='${debian_chroot:+($debian_chroot)}\u@\h:\w\n\$ '

    # Configure the UFW firewall
    - name: Disable and reset ufw firewall to installation defaults.
        state: reset

    - name: Find backup rules to delete
        paths: /etc/ufw
        patterns: "*.{{ cur_date }}_*"
        use_regex: no
      register: files_to_delete

    - name: Delete ufw backup rules
        path: "{{ item.path }}"
        state: absent
      with_items: "{{ files_to_delete.files }}"

    - name: Set the ssh '{{ ssh_port }}' port number in sshd_config (ver < 22.10).
        dest: /etc/ssh/sshd_config
        regexp: '^#Port '
        line: 'Port {{ ssh_port }}'
        state: present
      when: ansible_facts['distribution_version'] < '22.10'

    - name: Create a ssh.socket.d configuration directory (ver >= 22.10).
        path: /etc/systemd/system/ssh.socket.d
        state: directory
        owner: root
        group: root
        mode: 0755
      when: ansible_facts['distribution_version'] >= '22.10'

    - name: Create a local SSH socket stream configuration (ver >= 22.10).
        dest: /etc/systemd/system/ssh.socket.d/listen.conf
        content: "{{ ssh_socket_cfg }}"
        owner: root
        group: root
        mode: 0644
      when: ansible_facts['distribution_version'] >= '22.10'

    - name: daemon-reload (ver >= 22.10)
        daemon_reload: yes
      when: ansible_facts['distribution_version'] >= '22.10'

    - name: Restart the ssh service after updating the SSH port number (ver < 22.10).
        name: ssh
        state: restarted
      when: ansible_facts['distribution_version'] < '22.10'

    - name: Restart the ssh socket unit after updating the SSH port number (ver >= 22.10).
        name: ssh.socket
        state: restarted
      when: ansible_facts['distribution_version'] >= '22.10'

    - name: Change the ansible ssh port to '{{ ssh_port }}'
        ansible_port: '{{ ssh_port }}'

    - name: Allow ssh port '{{ ssh_port }}'.
        rule: allow
        proto: tcp
        port: '{{ ssh_port }}'
        state: enabled

    - name: Set the UFW log level.
        logging: '{{ ufw_log }}'

    - name: configure fail2ban for ssh
        dest: /etc/fail2ban/jail.local
        content: "{{ f2b_jail_local }}"
        owner: root
        group: root
        mode: 0644
        - restart fail2ban

    - name: enable fail2ban service on boot
        name: fail2ban
        enabled: true
        state: started

    # simple shell script to display fail2ban-client status info; usage:
    #   f2bst
    #   f2bst sshd
    - name: Configure f2bst
        dest: /usr/local/bin/f2bst
        content: |
          fail2ban-client status $*
        owner: root
        group: root
        mode: 0750

    - name: run needrestart
      command: needrestart -r a
      when: not reboot_required.stat.exists and upgrade.changed

    - name: Configure static networking
        src: etc/netplan/50-cloud-init.yaml
        dest: /etc/netplan/50-cloud-init.yaml
        owner: root
        group: root
        mode: 0644
        - netplan apply
      when: cfg_static_network == true

    - name: Report if reboot is needed.
        msg: Rebooting the server, please wait.
      when: reboot_required.stat.exists

    - name: Reboot the server if needed
        msg: "Reboot initiated by Ansible because of reboot required file."
        connect_timeout: 5
        reboot_timeout: 600
        pre_reboot_delay: 0
        post_reboot_delay: 30
        test_command: whoami
      when: reboot_required.stat.exists

    - name: Remove old packages from the cache
        autoclean: yes

    - name: Remove dependencies that are no longer needed
        autoremove: yes
        purge: yes

    - name: restart fail2ban
        name: fail2ban
        state: restarted
      when: reboot_required.stat.exists == false

    - name: netplan apply
      command: netplan apply
      when: cfg_static_network == true 

You can read the Ansible Documentation to learn more about Ansible.

You should only have to update the vars: section to change the settings for your specific situation. Most likely, you will want to set the client IP and timezone. Setting the client IP prevents one from being accidentally locked out by fail2ban.


In this guide, we have introduced Ansible for automating the initial Ubuntu server setup. This is very useful for deploying or redeploying a server after testing an application. It also creates a solid foundation for creating a web, database, or email server.