How to Handle Asynchronous Tasks with Node.js and BullMQ

Updated on August 21, 2023
How to Handle Asynchronous Tasks with Node.js and BullMQ header image


Asynchronous programming is a paradigm that enables task execution concurrently and independently. Tasks do not wait for each other to complete before running next. BullMQ is a queueing system that's implemented on top of Redis to deliver a fast and scalable implementation of a distributed queue.

This article explains how to handle asynchronous tasks with Node.js and BullMQ. You are to create a queueing system that extracts audio from any given video. This is useful when converting videos into audio that for sharing on other platforms such as podcasts.


Before you begin:

Redis Installation

Redis is an in-memory database commonly used as a cache or message broker. The in-memory capability makes Redis a low-latency and high-throughput option. In this section, install the Redis database server and use it to store videos in a queue before processing them into audio.

  1. Redis is available in the main Ubuntu APT repository, update the server packages

     $ sudo apt update
  2. Install Redis server

     $ sudo apt install redis-server
  3. BullMQ requires a Redis version higher than 5.0. Verify the installed version

     $ redis-server --version


     Redis server v=6.0.16 sha=00000000:0 malloc=jemalloc-5.2.1 bits=64 build=a3fdef44459b3ad6
  4. Verify that the Redis database is running correctly

     $ redis-cli PING



Set Up the Project Directory

BULLMQ is the project's root directory, and below is the proper directory tree.

        |_ utils
            | audioUtils.js
        |_ queues
            | audioQueue.js
        |_ routes
            | audioRoutes.js
        |_ public
            |_ audios
            |_ videos
        | index.js
       | form.ejs
       | head.ejs
       | result.ejs
           | main.css
  1. Switch to your user home directory

     $ cd /home/example-user/
  2. Create the project directories using the following command

     $ mkdir -p BULLMQ/backend/utils && touch BULLMQ/backend/utils/audioUtils.js && mkdir -p BULLMQ/backend/queues && touch BULLMQ/backend/queues/audioQueue.js && mkdir -p BULLMQ/backend/routes && touch BULLMQ/backend/routes/audioRoutes.js && mkdir -p BULLMQ/backend/public/audios && mkdir -p BULLMQ/backend/public/videos && touch BULLMQ/backend/index.js && mkdir -p BULLMQ/views && touch BULLMQ/views/form.ejs && touch BULLMQ/views/head.ejs && touch BULLMQ/views/result.ejs && mkdir -p BULLMQ/public/css && touch BULLMQ/public/css/main.css

Install Project Dependencies

  1. Install all project dependencies using the following command

     $ npm install @bull-board/api @bull-board/express bullmq express express-fileupload fluent-ffmpeg ioredis

    Below is what each dependency handles in the project:

    • @bull-board/api - Provides an API for monitoring and managing Bull queues
    • @bull-board/express - Acts as a middleware that adds a monitoring dashboard between Express.js and the Bull monitoring dashboard
    • bullmq - The queue management system capable of handling background jobs and messages
    • express - The Web application framework for building REST APIs
    • express-fileupload - Enables file uploads in Express
    • fluent-ffmpeg - A command line tool that opens a connection to FFmpeg
    • ioredis - Enables a connection to the Redis database
  2. Install the pm2 process manager package

     $ sudo npm install -g pm2

    The above command installs the pm2 package used to load balance, monitor processes, clustering, and perform automatic restarts

    By functionality, pm2 monitors the server created by express. The express-fileupload acts as a middleware that handles the video uploads. The system adds the video to the bullmq queue for processing, and fluent-ffmpeg fetches and processes the uploaded video in the queue

    In the background, the queue utilizes a Redis connection enabled by ioredis. @bull-board/api and @bull-board/express enable a user interface that visualizes how and when the jobs in the queue get processed

  3. When successful, install FFmpeg

     $ sudo apt install ffmpeg

    The above command install FFmpeg used to convert different video and audio formats, resize videos, alter sample rates, and capture video or audio streams

Set Up the Frontend Interface

On the web interface, video uploads use a form to select the target source file. In this section, use ejs to render the web pages required for this project. ejs is a templating engine commonly used with express to generate HTML within Javascript, and it's suitable for rendering dynamic content. Set up the necessary ejs files as described in the steps below.

  1. Using a Linux text editor such as Nano, edit the BULLMQ/views/head.ejs file

     $ nano BULLMQ/views/head.ejs
  2. Add the following code to the file

     <meta charset="UTF-8" />
     <meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=edge" />
     <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1.0" />
     <title>Image Processor</title>
     <link rel="stylesheet" href="css/main.css" />

    Save and close the file

    The above code links the CSS file used to style all web pages in the project.

  3. Edit the BULLMQ/views/form.ejs file

     $ nano BULLMQ/views/form.ejs
  4. Add the following code to the file

     <!DOCTYPE html>
     <html lang="en">
       <%- include('./head'); %>
         <div class="home-wrapper">
           <h1>Video Processor</h1>
           <form action="/upload" method="POST" enctype="multipart/form-data">
             placeholder="Select Video from your computer"
            <button type="submit">Upload Video</button>

    Save and close the file

    The above code includes the CSS styles linked in head.ejs, and a form that accepts a POST request to the /upload endpoint.

    The form only accepts files and assigns a name attribute of fileupload to the uploaded video. The name attribute identifies the file on the backend. When a user clicks the submit button, it triggers the form submission method.

  5. The final audio files display through the BULLMQ/views/result.ejs file, edit it to declare new code elements

     $ nano BULLMQ/views/result.ejs
  6. Add the following code to the file

     <!DOCTYPE html>
      <html lang="en">
        <%- include('./head'); %>
          <div class="gallery-wrapper">
            <% if (audioFiles.length > 0) { %>
              <p>The following are the processed audios:</p>
              <% for (let audioFile of audioFiles) { %>
                <audio controls>
                  <source src="<%= audioFile %>" type="audio/mp3">
                  Your browser does not support the audio element.
               <% } %>
            <% } else { %>
                The audio is being processed. Refresh after a few seconds to listen to the extracted audios.
            <% } %>

    Save and close the file

    The above webpage code displays processed audio. When a user uploads a video using form.ejs, the request redirects to result.ejs with a gallery view of the processed audio files. The <% if (audioFiles.length > 0) { %> directive verifies if available audios are successfully processed. When ready, they display on the webpage.

  7. To design the web page, edit the BULLMQ/public/css/main.css file

     $ nano BULLMQ/public/css/main.css
  8. Add the following code to style the web page

     body {  background: #f8f8f8;  }
     h1  {  text-align: center; }
     p   {  margin-bottom: 20px; }  
     /** Styles for the "Choose File"  button **/
     button[type="submit"] {
         background: none;
         border: 1px solid orange;
         padding: 10px 30px;
         border-radius: 30px;
         transition: all 1s;
     button[type="submit"]:hover {
         background: orange;
     /** Styles for the "Upload Image"  button **/
     input[type="file"]::file-selector-button {
         border: 2px solid #2196f3;
         padding: 10px 20px;
         border-radius: 0.2em;
         background-color: #2196f3;
     ul {
         list-style: none;
         padding: 0;
         display: flex;
         flex-wrap: wrap;
         gap: 20px;
     .home-wrapper {
         max-width: 500px;
         margin: 0 auto;
         padding-top: 100px;
     .gallery-wrapper {
         max-width: 1200px;
         margin: 0 auto;

    Save and close the file

Set Up the Server using ExpressJS

In this section, create an express server that serves the following routes:

  • /admin - serves the Bull Dashboard
  • / - renders the form.ejs and allows video uploads
  • /result - renders the result.ejs with all the processed audio files.
  • /upload - POST endpoint adds the uploaded video to the job queue awaiting processing, then redirects to the /result.
  1. Edit the main express file BULLMQ/backend/index.js

     $ nano BULLMQ/backend/index.js
  2. Add the following code to the file

     const express = require("express");
     const bodyParser = require("body-parser");
     const fileUpload = require("express-fileupload");
     const { createBullBoard } = require("@bull-board/api");
     const { BullMQAdapter } = require("@bull-board/api/bullMQAdapter");
     const { ExpressAdapter } = require("@bull-board/express");
     const path = require("path");
     const audioRoutes = require("./routes/audioRoutes");
     const { audioJobQueue, worker, queueEvents } = require("./queues/audioQueue");
     const serverAdapter = new ExpressAdapter();
               queues: [new BullMQAdapter(audioJobQueue)],
                serverAdapter: serverAdapter,
     const app = express();
     app.use(express.static(path.join(__dirname, "public")));
     app.set("view engine", "ejs");
     app.use(bodyParser.urlencoded({ extended: true }));
     app.use("/admin", serverAdapter.getRouter());
     app.use("/", audioRoutes);
     queueEvents.on("completed", () => {
     console.log(`Job  Initialized to Queue`);
          .on("failed", (job, err) => {
                     console.log(`Job ${job} failed with error: ${err.message}`);
          .on("error", (err) => {
                     console.log("Worker error:", err);
          .on("stalled", (job) => {
                     console.log(`Job ${job} stalled`);
     app.listen(4000, function () {
         console.log("Server running on port 4000");

    Below is the code breakdown:

    • Imports

      • createBullBoard, BullMQAdapter, ExpressAdapter: These modules set up the BullDashboard to monitor and manage BullMQ queues
      • path: The inbuilt NodeJs module for working with file paths
      • audioRoutes: Custom module defined in BULLMQ/backend/routes/audioRoutes that configures routes used in the application
      • audioJobQueue, worker queueEvents: Modules that implement the BullMQ modules to set up the queue, worker, and queue events
    • BullBoard Setup

      • serverAdapter is an instance of the ExpressAdapter. The serverAdapter integrates the BullDashboard into an express application. A BullBoard passes the queues and the serverAdapter to the createBullBoard function
      • serverAdapter.setBasePath sets the path to the dashboard as /admin. The express server runs on port 4000, and so, the administrator page is accessible using the URL localhost:4000/admin
    • Setting up express

      • An express instance starts as app, and the backend/public directory served by the express.static function contains uploaded videos. ejs is the view engine used to render the ejs templates in the views folder
      • bodyparser and fileUpload middleware handle JSON form data and uploads respectively.
      • BULLMQ/public/ used by express.static as the static directory, contains styles used by ejs templates
      • The /admin route serves the BullDashboard while the / route serves the base route for routers in the audioRoutes function
    • Queue events and workers

      • Adds the completed event listener to the queueEvents instance, and it logs a message per job addition
      • failed, error, and stalled event listeners added to the worker instance handle worker errors, failed jobs, and stalled jobs
    • Starting the server

      • The server runs on port 4000 with a callback function that logs a message to the terminal

Set Up the Project Server Routes

  1. To define routers, edit the audioRoutes.js file

     $ nano BULLMQ/backend/routes/audioRoutes.js
  2. Add the following code to the file

     const express = require("express");
     const path = require("path");
     const fs = require("fs");
     const { audioJobQueue } = require("../queues/audioQueue");
     const router = express.Router();
     router.get("/", function (req, res) {
     router.get("/result", (req, res) => {
         const audioDirPath = path.join(__dirname, "../public", "audios");
         const audioFiles = fs.readdirSync(audioDirPath).map((audio) => {
             console.log("audios is ",audio)
             const decodedAudioName = decodeURIComponent(audio);
             console.log("decoded audio is ",decodedAudioName);
             return `/audios/${audio}`;
        res.render("result", { audioFiles });
"/upload", async function (req, res) {
         try {
             const {fileupload } = req.files;
             if (!fileupload) return res.sendStatus(400);
             const videoFolderPath = path.join(__dirname, "../public", "videos");
             const videoFilePath = path.join(videoFolderPath, encodeURIComponent(;
             const videoPath = `/videos/${encodeURIComponent(}`;
             await audioJobQueue.add("audioProcess", {
                 video_path: videoPath,
         } catch (error) {
             res.status(500).json({ error: "Failed to process video" });
     module.exports = router;

    Save and close the file

    Below is what the code does:

    • An instance of the express.Router() function initializes as router
    • router.get("/") defines a GET route that renders the form.ejs template
    • router.get("/result") defines a GET route that retrieves all the audio file names in the public/audio directory as an array. The array forwards as audioFiles to the result view
    •"/upload") defines a POST route that handles file uploads used by the form.ejs template. The uploaded file has a name field of fileuploads in the req.files object. The file saves to the public/videos directory if it exists
    • The video path links to audioJobQueue, through the add method, and the audioProcess references the job type added to the queue. audioProcess is an arbitrary name that describe the job type added to the queue


  1. To establish a connection to the Redis database, edit the audioQueue.js file

     $ nano BULLMQ/backend/queues/audioQueue.js
  2. Add the following code to the file

     const { Queue, Worker, QueueEvents } = require("bullmq");
     const audioProcess = require("../utils/audioUtils");
     const Redis = require('ioredis');
     const connectionToRedis = new Redis({
          host: "localhost",
          port: 6379,
     const audioJobQueue = new Queue("videoJobQueue", {
               connection: connectionToRedis,
     const worker = new Worker("videoJobQueue", async (job) => {
                   console.log("job added to queue")
                    try {
                           await audioProcess(job);
                     catch (error) {
                          console.log(`Job ${} failed with error: ${error.message}`);
    const queueEvents = new QueueEvents("videoJobQueue");
    module.exports = {

    Save and close the file

    Below is what the code does:

    • Queue, Worker, and QueueEvents are classes provisioned by the bullmq package. Workers is the process responsible for processing jobs. QueueEvents provides a way to monitor the progress or status of a job in the queue
    • audioProcess is a module in the utils/audioUtils that performs the logic for converting videos to audio
    • ioredis is the NodeJS Redis client that connects to the Redis database
    • connectionToRedis instantiates a Redis connection with the default connection parameters
    • audioJobQueue instantiates a Queue that utilizes the defined Redis connection at connectionToRedis
    • worker is an instance of the Worker class. The worker class listens for jobs added to the videoJobQueue queue. The catch block in the function logs any resulting errors
    • queueEvents listens to events of all jobs added to the videoJobQueue

Convert Videos to Audio using FFmpeg

  1. To implement the audioProcess function which handles the conversion process using FFmpeg, edit the audioUtils file

     $ nano BULLMQ/backend/utils/audioUtils
  2. Add the following code to the file

     const ffmpeg = require("fluent-ffmpeg");
     const path = require("path");
     const fs = require('fs');
     const audioProcess = async (job) => {
     console.log("Processing job:",;
     const { video_path } =;
     console.log("job data is ",;
     const videoFilePath = path.join(__dirname, "../public", video_path);
     const timestamp =;
     const newFileName = `${timestamp}.mp3`; // Rename the file
     const audioFolderPath = path.join(__dirname, "../public", "audios");
     const audioFilePath = path.join(audioFolderPath, newFileName);
     const convertVideoToAudio = ffmpeg(videoFilePath)
         .on("error", (err) => {
          console.error("FFmpeg error. Job processing terminated.", err);
       .on("end", () => {
          console.log("Video successfully converted to audio.....");
          // Update job status to "complete"
          console.log("Job is successfully completed");
       module.exports = audioProcess;

    Save and close the file

    Below is what the above code does:

    • audioProcess is an asynchronous function that takes a job object as an argument. The video_path from the object extracts, and video_path is the location of the video that needs processing to audio
    • path defines an absolute path to the video using the video_path and the base directory path. This becomes the videoFilePath.
    • audiofilePath joins the base path, audios folder path, and the newFileName with a timestamp. This means the audio extracted from the video renames to the server timestamp. This ensures that each audio has a unique name.
    • convertVideoToAudio initializes the ffmpeg command, the video to convert, and the conversion to mp3 with the .toFormat("mp3") option. .save specifies where to save the mp3 file as defined by audiofilePath.

    In case of an error, the .on(error,..) event handler logs the error to the console. When the conversion is complete, the .on("end",...) event triggers and the job progress updates to 100.

Start the Server

To ensure that the server runs 24/7 without interruptions, use a process manager such as PM2. In this section, switch to the project directory and start the server using pm2 as described in the steps below.

  1. Switch to the BULLMQ directory.

     $ cd BULLMQ
  2. Start the server

     $ pm2 start backend/index.js

    The above command starts the application server as a background process managed by pm2

    Your output should look like one below.

     [PM2] Spawning PM2 daemon with pm2_home=/home/example-user/.pm2
     [PM2] PM2 Successfully daemonized
     [PM2] Starting /home/example-user/BULLMQ/backend/index.js in fork_mode (1 instance)
     [PM2] Done.
  3. To view the process logs, run the following command:

     $ pm2 logs

    When the application is running, the following output should display in your server logs:

     0|index    | Server running on port 4000

    Press :Key:Ctrl: + :key:C: to stop the pm2 log output

  4. Test that the application server listens on port 4000.

Configure Nginx as a Reverse Proxy

To secure the server, expose the HTTP port 80 instead of the backend application port 4000 for access. Configure Nginx as a Reverse Proxy as described in the steps below.

  1. Allow the HTTP port 80 through the Firewall.

     $ sudo ufw allow 80/tcp

    The above command allows incoming HTTP requests to the server through the default UFW firewall.

  2. Disable the default Nginx configuration file

     $ sudo rm /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/default
  3. Create a new host configuration file

     $ sudo touch /etc/nginx/sites-available/bullmq
  4. Edit the file

     $ sudo nano /etc/nginx/sites-available/bullmq
  5. Add the following configurations to the file

     server {
       listen 80 default_server;
       listen [::]:80 default_server;
       server_name _;
       location / {
               try_files $uri $uri/ =404;

    Save and close the file

  6. Enable the configuration file

     $ sudo ln -s /etc/nginx/sites-available/bullmq /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/bullmq
  7. Test the Nginx configuration for errors

     $ sudo nginx -t
  8. Restart Nginx to apply changes

     $ sudo systemctl restart nginx


  1. Using a web browser such as Firefox, visit your public server IP Address. Replace with your actual server address

    Verify that the application loads correctly with the Choose File and Upload Video buttons

  2. Click the Choose File button to browse a video file from your computer

  3. When selected, click Upload Video to start processing the video file

    The Video Upload form webpage

  4. When the video-to-audio conversion is complete, your request redirects to the /result page. Verify that you can play and download any of the generated audio files

    BullMQ Processed Audio list

  5. To view the BullDashboard, navigate to the /admin/queue/videoJobQueue path in your URL


    Verify that all processed jobs and states display in the dashboard

    Bull dashboard

  6. To view the application status logs, run the following command in your SSH session

     $ pm2 logs


     0|index    | Uploading: 1. Conclusion.mp4
     0|index    | job added to queue
     0|index    | Processing job: 2
     0|index    | job data is  { video_path: '/videos/1.%20Conclusion.mp4' }
     0|index    | Job  Initialized to Queue
     0|index    | audios is  1691771605201.mp3
     0|index    | decoded audio is  1691771605201.mp3
     0|index    | audios is  1691771984626.mp3
     0|index    | decoded audio is  1691771984626.mp3
     0|index    | Video successfully converted to audio.....
     0|index    | Job is successfully completed
     0|index    | Video successfully converted to audio.....
     0|index    | Job is successfully completed


In this article, you have developed a working application to handle asynchronous tasks with Node.js and BullMQ. By using BullMQ, you can make use of asynchronous programming in resource or time-intensive tasks. To change your interface design, edit the CSS file to add more style to the webpage elements. For more information about BullMQ, visit the official documentation.

Next Steps

To implement more solutions on your Vultr Cloud server, visit the following resources.